The second way that a nucleus could be disrupted is by particles striking it.However, the nucleus has a strong positive charge and the electron shells have a strong negative charge. Those that can decay are mesons and baryons, which include protons and neutrons; although decays can involve other particles such as photons, electrons, positrons, and neutrinos.In fact, it is possible to shut down electron capture completely—simply ionize the substance so that there are no electrons nearby.There is a fairly well-known example of chemical state affecting electron capture activity.For example, in uranium-lead dating, they use rocks containing zircon (Zr Si O Zircon and baddeleyite incorporate uranium atoms into their crystalline structure as substitutes for zirconium, but strongly reject lead.
The energy locked in the nucleus is enormous, but cannot be released easily.The phenomenon we know as heat is simply the jiggling around of atoms and their components, so in principle a high enough temperature could cause the components of the core to break out.However, the temperature required to do this is in in the millions of degrees, so this cannot be achieved by any natural process that we know about.The effect of this on alpha decay, which is the most common decay mode in radiometric dating, is utterly insignificant.
There is another effect that takes place in the "electron capture" type of Beta decay.
The Be nucleus (Beryllium-7) is an electron capturer with a half-life of about 53 days, turning into Lithium-7. While this half-life is way too short to be useful for radiometric dating, the effect of the chemical state is noticeable.